The Definition In Practice
This definition of geography works well for several reasons. First, it emphasizes that geography is a methodology. It stresses the geographic way of organizing and analyzing information pertaining to the location, distribution, pattern, and interactions of the varied physical and human features of Earth’s surface. All geographic inquiry should begin with the question, “Where?” Geographers and all other scientists ask “Why?” And, of course, most major Earth-bound events, features, and conditions can and often do have some impact on our lives, thereby begging the question, “Why care?”
An example on the global scale, petroleum resources in the Middle East certainly have contributed to a host of conflicts, and “petro-politics” surely will be a major issue for decades to come. Oil production, distribution, consumption, and trade all impact the lives of several billion people daily.
The definition I describe is clear and concise. It places no limitation on what geographers study it clearly identifies the discipline’s unique methodologythe spatial dimension of features, including where they are, in what patterns they occur, what important relationships exist, and so forth.
*Charles F. Gritzner, “What Is Where, Why There, and Why Care?,” Journal of Geography, 101, no. 1 , pp. 3840.
Bundling Urbanization And Sustainability
Given the enormous momentum underway that drives , the challenge confronting the Century of the City is not whether to urbanize but how to urbanize in ways that are more sustainable and with less environmental impact. Here, we discuss recent research on urbanization and global change in the context of .
Urban Issues And Challenges In Lics And Nees
Urban areas are growing rapidly. They can cause a range of opportunities and challenges. Urban planning is important to ensure that the opportunities are maximised and the challenges are minimised.
India is an example of a newly emerging economy . Each year thousands of people move to the city of Mumbai from rural areas. People move to Mumbai because the city has lots of pull factors. People think that the city will provide lots of opportunitiessuch as:
- social better housing and services, eg healthcare and education
- economic more jobs and higher wages
- environmental better living conditions with a safer environment
People who move think that they will have a better quality of life. Unfortunately, cities such as Mumbai face lots of challenges and the people who move there do not always have a better quality of life. Some of the challenges they may face include:
- social poor housing conditions and crime
- economic low wages or unemployment
- environmental polluted drinking water and a lack of sanitation
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The Importance Of Transportation
Transport represents one of the most important human activities worldwide as it allows us to mitigate the constraint of geography. It is an indispensable component of the economy and plays a major role in supporting spatial relations between locations. Transport creates links between regions and economic activities, between people and the rest of the world, and as such, generates value. It is composed of core components, which are the modes, infrastructures, networks, and flows. These components are fundamental for transportation to occur, but they also underline that geography, despite significant technological, social, and economic changes, remains a salient force shaping transportation.
Transport is a multidimensional activity whose importance is:
Transportation as a multidisciplinary endeavor can be approached through several fields of inquiry where some are at the core of transport geography, such as transport demand, nodes, and networks. In contrast, others are more peripheral, such as natural resources, political geography, and regional geography. Yet, they all contribute to the understanding of transport activities and their impacts on the economy, society, and the environment.
- Core Components of Transportation
- Vehicle Use Indicators, World, 1950-2019
- Transport and Communication Costs Indexes, 1920-2015
- World Main Road Network
- World Rail Network and Rail Systems
Examples Of Ne In A Sentence
Washington Postnéerefinery29.comneePEOPLE.comneestar-telegramneeCountry LivingNew York Times
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word née. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.
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The Purpose Of Transportation
The unique purpose of transportation is to overcome space, which is shaped by a variety of human and physical constraints such as distance, time, administrative divisions, and topography. Jointly, they confer friction to any movement, commonly known as the friction of distance . In an ideal world, transportation would come at no effort in terms of cost and time and unlimited capacity and spatial reach. Under such circumstances, geography would not matter. However, geography can be a significant constraint to transport in the real world since it trades space for time and money and can only be partially circumscribed. The extent to which this is done has a cost that varies significantly according to factors such as the length of the trip, the capacity of modes and infrastructures, and the nature of what is being transported. Transport geography can be understood from a series of eight core principles:
What Is An Example Of Place In Geography
These physical and human characteristics can include landforms, waterways, people, climate, languages, communication, and transportation. For example, a well-known place is Antarctica and the South Pole.
What is geographical movement?
The geography of places is influenced by the degree to which humans have impacted their local environment. Movement: Humans Interacting on the Earth. The postmodern world is one of great interaction between places. This movement is inherently geographic, whether it is by telecommunications or ship.
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Changes In Urban Life And Urban Function
In terms of urban life, there are clear indications that family dynamics are changing in this new era of urbanization. Family size is shrinking, and in cultures where multigenerational housing was the norm, two-person households are now more common. There is also a stronger social and economic link between the urban and the rural. This is in part due to the peri-urbanization process whereby some family members reside in the city and others in the countryside. Nevertheless, the point is that the division between urban and rural is less distinct today. Another change in urban living is the embrace of Western styles of architecture and urbanization, which are resource intensive and often not adapted to local climates. The North American suburb has gone global, and car-dependent urban developments are increasingly the norm. These patterns of sprawled development have been associated with increasing social segregation and reduced community participation, less social involvement, and a disruption of community boundedness . The international debate on climate change creates a useful framework to consider the real impact of the current Western model of consumption and lifestyle exported through globalizationeven to the most remote regions of the world.
Keeping Up With The Journal Literature
Want an easy way to keep up with the journal literature for all facets of Geography? And you use a mobile device? You can install the BrowZine app and create a custom Bookshelf of your favorite journal titles. Then you will get the Table of Contents of your favorite journals automatically delivered to you when they become available. Once you have the ToC’s you can download and read the articles you want.
You can get the app from the App Store or Google Play.
Don’t own or use a mobile device? You can still use BrowZine! It’s now available in a web version. You can get to it here. The web version works the same way as the app version. Find the journals you like, create a custom Bookshelf, get ToCs and read the articles you want.
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Threat From Tropical Cyclones
Hurricanes pose a severe threat to the area, and the city is particularly at risk because of its low elevation, because it is surrounded by water from the north, east, and south and because of Louisianas sinking coast. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, New Orleans is the nations most vulnerable city to hurricanes. Indeed, portions of Greater New Orleans have been flooded by the Grand Isle Hurricane of 1909, the New Orleans Hurricane of 1915,1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane,Hurricane Flossy in 1956, Hurricane Betsy in 1965, Hurricane Georges in 1998, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, Hurricane Gustav in 2008, and Hurricane Zeta in 2020 with the flooding in Betsy being significant and in a few neighborhoods severe, and that in Katrina being disastrous in the majority of the city.
On August 29, 2005, storm surge from Hurricane Katrina caused catastrophic failure of the federally designed and built levees, flooding 80% of the city. A report by the American Society of Civil Engineers says that had the levees and floodwalls not failed and had the pump stations operated, nearly two-thirds of the deaths would not have occurred.
In 2006, Louisiana voters overwhelmingly adopted an amendment to the states constitution to dedicate all revenues from off-shore drilling to restore Louisianas eroding coast line. U.S. Congress has allocated $7 billion to bolster New Orleans flood protection.
The Changing Economic World
The economy is the state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money. There have been MAJOR changes to the global economy over time
The growth of Newly Emerging Economies such as China and India or the BRIC economies
The emergence of major regional trading blocs like the European Union
Many High Income countries have experienced deindustrialisation the loss of manufacturing industries
World trade has GROWN, increasing amounts of goods are moving around the world
Trade is more OPEN there are fewer barriers to global trade
Some countries are stuck in poverty these are known by the UN as the Least Developed Countries
Major TNCs have had an impact on the economy
The rise of quaternary industries and digital industries has been witnessed
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What Does The Word Geography Mean
The word “geography” was invented by the ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes and literally means “writing about the earth.” The word can be divided into two parts – ge and graphy. Ge means the Earth and graphy refers to writing.
Of course, geography today means much more than writing about the Earth but it’s a difficult discipline to define. Many geographers have done their best to define geography but a typical dictionary definition today reads, “The science of the Earth’s physical features, resources, climate, population, etc.”
Connecting With Space And Place
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earths surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. Read More…
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Five Themes Of Geography
The Five Geography Themes began as a framework for making geography accessible to children from kindergarten to high school. They describe a simple, effective method for parents and educators to teach children about geography and how it relates to nature, civilization, and other topics. More: Five Themes of Geography Explained
Though the National Geographical Standards replaced these themes in 1994, they remain a simple and effective way to teach children about geography.
Common Uses For Topographic Maps
You’ll find topographic maps in sporting goods stores or online sites that cater to outdoor enthusiasts. Since topographic maps also display water depths, locations of rapids, waterfalls, dams, boat ramp access points, intermittent streams, wooded marshes and swamps, sand vs. gravel beaches, sandbars, seawalls, breakwaters, dangerous rocks, levees, and mangroves, they are extremely useful to campers, hikers, hunters, and anyone going fishing, rafting, or boating. Topographic maps also show aboveground and buried pipelines, as well as utility and telephone poles, caves, covered reservoirs, cemeteries, mine shafts, open-pit mines, campgrounds, ranger stations, winter recreation areas, and dirt roads that likely won’t appear on your basic roadmap.
While topography refers to land, a chart that shows the varying depths of water is called a bathymetric chart or map. In addition to showing depths with lines as on a topographic map, these types of charts may also show differences in depths via color-coding. Surfers might review bathymetric charts of beaches in order to locate places where waves are likely to break bigger than in other areas .
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A Brief History Of Geography As A Field Of Study
The Greeks are the first known culture to actively explore geography as a science and philosophy, with major contributors including Thales of Miletus, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Aristotle, Dicaearchus of Messana, Strabo, and Ptolemy. Mapping by the Romans as they explored new lands added new techniques.
During the Middle Ages, Arabs such as Idrisi, Ibn Battuta, and Ibn Khaldun built on and maintained the Greek and Roman learnings. Following the journeys of Marco Polo, interest in geography spread throughout Europe.
During the Renaissance and into the 16th and 17th centuries the great voyages of exploration revived a desire for solid theoretical foundations and accurate detail. The Geographia Generalis by Bernhardus Varenius and Gerardus Mercators world map are prime examples.
Prospects For Transport Geography
Transport geography played a relatively small role in the field of transport studies, a field that has been dominated by engineers and economists. This was due in part to the needs of the industry focused on providing infrastructures and technologies, at what cost and benefits, and at what level of pricing. The contemporary industry is much more complex, with issues as varied as safety, aesthetics, working conditions, the environment, and governance being necessary considerations. Therefore, a much broader set of skills is required, and transport studies have become a multi-disciplinary field of application. Transport geography has opportunities to contribute to transport studies, transport planning, and transport operations, in part because of the breadth of the approach and training. Still, transport geography, like the field of transportation in general, does not receive a level of attention in academia proportional to its economic and social importance.
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A Short Definition For Human Geography
The study of the interrelationships between people, place, and environment, and how these vary spatially and temporally across and between locations. Whereas physical geography concentrates on spatial and environmental processes that shape the natural world and tends to draw on the natural and physical sciences for its scientific underpinnings and methods of investigation, human geography concentrates on the spatial organization and processes shaping the lives and activities of people, and their interactions with places and nature. Human geography is more allied with the social sciences and humanities, sharing their philosophical approaches and methods .
With respect to methods, human geography uses the full sweep of quantitative and qualitative methods from across the social sciences and humanities, mindful of using them to provide a thorough geographic analysis. It also places emphasis on fieldwork and mapping , and has made a number of contributions to developing new methods and techniques, notably in the areas of spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and GIScience.
Key Takeaways: Physical Geography
- Physical geography is the study of our planet and its systems .
- Understanding the climate and how it’s changing affect people now and can help plan for the future.
- Because the study of Earth is vast, numerous sub-branches of physical geography specialize in different areas, from the upper limits of the sky to the bottom of the ocean.
In contrast, cultural or human geography spends time studying why people locate where they do and how they adapt to and change the landscape in which they live. Someone studying cultural geography might also research how languages, religion, and other aspects of culture develop where people live how those aspects are transmitted to others as people move or how cultures change because of where they move.
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What Is Environmental Geography
Environmental geography is an aspect of geography that delves into the relationship, including the social, economic and spatial interconnections, between people and their environments. The impact of these human processes on natural systems and the possible solutions to address key environmental issues are some of the fields of interest of environmental geography.
Traditionally, geography is mainly considered as the scientific study of various places on Earth. However, the modernistic view not only includes the designations of the natural and artificial landforms on the planet, but also human demography, economic activities, cultural and historical development, social organizations and climates. The interactions between these major elements provide a better understanding on how humans directly or indirectly shape the environment.
What Is Meant By Settlement Geography
Definitions. Referring to Stone , settlement geography is. the description and analysis of the distribution of buildings by which people attach themselves to the land. Further, that the geography of settling designate the action of erecting buildings in order to occupy an area temporarily or permanently.
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