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What Is Locomotion In Biology

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Cbse Quick Revision Notes Cbse Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 Locomotion And Movement

Biology Locomotion & Movement part 1 (Introduction) CBSE class 11 XI

Locomotion is the voluntary movement of an individual from one place to another. Walking, running, climbing, swimming are the examples of locomotion. All locomotion are movement but all movements are not locomotion.

Types of Movement Cells of the human body show three main types of movements:

  • Macrophages and leucocytes in blood exhibit amoeboid movements. Coordinated movement of cilia in trachea to remove dusts particles and passage of ova through fallopian tube is example of Ciliary movements.
  • Movement of limbs, jaw, tongue, etc. need muscular movement. Contractile property of muscles is used in movement in higher organism including human beings.

Muscles are specialized tissues of mesodermal origin. They have property like excitability, contractility, extensibility and elasticity.

Functions Of Skeletal System In Locomotion And Movement

The skeletal system plays a vital role in the locomotion and movement. The coordinated movement of skeletal muscles, bones, ligaments help in locomotion.

  • The skeletal system provides a definite shape and posture to organisms
  • They provide a structural framework
  • It imparts protection to the internal organs that are delicate such as the spinal cord, Human brain, and the lungs
  • It assists the body in the locomotory movements from one place to another
  • The skeletal system also helps in the breathing process by the movement of the sternum and the ribs

Learn more in detail about the Locomotion, movements, locomotory organs of different animals or any other related topics at

Different Types Of Locomotion

With the presence of various muscles, bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and joints, different types of locomotion and movement are possible. Locomotion is the ability to move from one place to another and the three types of locomotion which are performed by living organisms include flight locomotion, swimming locomotion and land locomotion. Flight locomotion is flying which includes the motion of an organism through the air, example: birds.

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Two Approaches For Exploring Efficiency And Economy Relationship In Terrestrial Locomotion

Currently, efficiency is related to the concept of energy saving. For instance, a machine or any efficient electronic device should necessarily have low energy expenditure, cost, or consumption . This notion extends to more complex contexts, such as an industry or an institution, or even a country. This concept of efficiency has also been used in the analysis of energetics repercussions during locomotion, when the efficiency and Cmetab present a strictly inverse relationship .

However, this is not the case always. Although related, the concepts of economy and efficiency are different. For example, studies show that increases in energy efficiency in the United States during the 1990s came along a per capita increase in energy consumption and carbon emissions . Therefore, the predominant understanding of efficiency may cause misinterpretations when applied to different phenomena by establishing a deterministic relationship with the economy . Thus, the question is to what extent is it possible to apply this rationale? Or, whether it is possible to extend this approach to different conditions, including when it comes to locomotion energetics. The mode that relates efficiency to economy and vice versa may generate different scientific interpretations.

Overall efficiency during jumping in countermovement and no countermovement jumps across different mechanical power values. Data adapted from Asmussen and Bonde-Petersen .

Based On Their Location Three Types Of Muscles Are Identified

Biology Form 5 Chapter 2
Skeletal Muscles Visceral Muscles Cardiac Muscles
Associated with skeletal system, alternate light and dark bands , voluntary and locomotory and change in body posture function. Form inner wall of internal visceral organs, non-striated, involuntary muscle, assists in movement of food through digestive tract and gametes. Muscles of heart, having branching pattern, alternate light and dark bands, involuntary in action.
  • Skeletal Muscle is made up of muscles bundles , held together by collagenous connective tissue called fascia.
  • Each muscle bundle contains a number of muscle fibres. Each muscle fibre is lined by plasma membrane called sarcolemma enclosing sarcoplasm. Partially arranged myofibrils are present in muscle bundle having alternate light and dark bands due to presence of protein- actin and myosin
  • Light bands contain actin and is called I-band and dark band contains myosin, called A-band . Both bands are present parallel to each other in longitudinal fashion.
  • In centre of each I-band is elastic fibre called Z line. In the middle of A-band is thin fibrous M line. The portion of myofibrils between two successive Z lines is the functional unit of contraction called a sarcomere.
  • At resting stage thin filament overlaps the thick filament. The part of thick filament not overlapped is called H zone.

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Faqs Related To Locomotion And Movement

Ques. What is the connection between movement and locomotion?

Ans: The displacement of a body or its parts from their original position, whether temporary or permanent, is referred to as movement. External and internal impulses cause living organisms and their components to move. Locomotion, on the other hand, is the movement of the entire body from one place to another.

Ques. What is a simple sort of movement that isnt locomotion?

Ans: When a body moves from one location to another, it is said to be in locomotion. Locomotion includes walking, running, and climbing. However, other physical components, such as the tongue and jaws, do not allow us to move. As a result, it is possible to say that all locomotions are movements, but not all movements are locomotions.

Ques. What role does locomotion play in animal behavior?

Ans: Locomotion plays a vital role in animal behavior as it assists them in moving from one location to another. Animals move for a variety of reasons in order to make a life. To avoid their predators, they walk, run, jump, fly and swim.

Ques. What are the different types of plant movement?

Ans: Plant motions can be divided into three categories:

Ques. List the cells and tissue of the human body that demonstrate:

  • Ameboid movement
  • Ans:

  • Leukocytes and Macrophages. Microfilaments and other cytoskeletal elements are also involved.
  • Ques. What is the mechanism of locomotion in different organisms?

    Ques. Explain the various types of movements.

    Bipedal Locomotion In Other Animals

    The first bipedal animal was Eudibamus, a reptile that lived about 290 million years ago. All birds are bipedal and most use bipedal locomotion to walk, escape danger and run after prey. Lizards often run bipedally on their hind legs. One example is the worlds fastest lizard, the spiny-tailed iguana. The green basilisk lizard Basiliscus plumifrons is a quadruped on land but runs on its two hind legs across the surface of the water. Other animals that use bipedal locomotion are hopping mice the springhare, pangolins and kangaroos.

    The image above shows a kangaroo hopping using bipedal locomotion.

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    Striated Or Skeletal Muscles

    These muscles are voluntary in nature which means their movement is under the control of our will. They are mainly responsible for bringing about the movement of posture and location of the organism. They are called striated muscles due to the presence of striations present on them when seen under the microscope.

    Locomotion And Movement Class 11 Notes Biology

    Locomotion and Movement | NCERT Biology Highlight | Crash Course NEET 2020 Preparation |NEET Biology

    CBSE quick revision note for class 11 Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.

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    Description And Measurement Of Terrestrial Locomotion Traces

    Locomotion traces of limbed tetrapods consist of sequences of impressions of the feet and hands , and any other parts of the tracemaker that contacted the sediment. Each impression that represents a single footstep is referred to as a footprint, ichnite, or track . Three or more successive footprints from the same animal define a trackway . Tracksites are areas where multiple trackways are present. The morphology of locomotion traces is a function of foot shape, body and tail motion and control, substrate consistency, and tracemaker-locomotion dynamics and posture . Thus, the footprints of a single tracemaker may not resemble each other exactly or provide accurate depictions of the track-maker’s feet. These disparities must be taken into account when assigning ichnotaxonomic names .

    FIGURE 12.3. Morphological features and measurements of vertebrate tracks. FL = footprint length, FW = footprint width dl = digit length dw = digit width p/sl = palm/sole length p/sw = palm/sole width ppd = length of the phalangeal portion of the digit fl = free length. Typical landmarks and measures of angles of vertebrate tracks roman numerals refer to digit numbers. Common measurements, terminology, and sedimentary structures of vertebrate tracks in cross section.

    David E. Alexander, in, 2017

    Disorders Of Muscular And Skeletal System

    • Myasthenia gravis- auto immune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction causing fatigue, weakening and paralysis of skeletal system.
    • Muscular Dystrophy- degeneration of skeletal muscles due to genetic disorder.
    • Osteoporosis decreased bone mass in old age leading to chance of fracture due to decreased estrogen.
    • Arthritis- inflammation of joints.
    • Gout- inflammation of joints due to accumulation of uric acid crystals.
    • Tetany- Rapid spasms in muscle due to low Ca ++ in body fluid

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    Efficiency Economy And Power Relationship In Walking And Running

    Idealization of metabolic cost of walking based on adaptation of hydraulic model by with a watermill, representing the diameter of tube releasing energy/liquid on the blades of a watermill . The water remaining on the blades returns to the reservoir and the water that falls into the funnel represents Cmetab. Internally, the blades have two compartments and remain all the time facing up except for the moment when they pass through the reservoir. This model represents what might be expected into the relationship between Pmetab and Cmetab at progressive walking speeds under the action of an energy minimizing mechanism, that is, how the increase in power is related to the cost. The optimal walking speed represents the velocity in which the Cmetab is lower.

    Control Of Muscle Tension

    Biology Form 5 Chapter 2

    Neural control initiates the formation of actinmyosin cross-bridges, leading to the sarcomere shortening involved in muscle contraction. These contractions extend from the muscle fiber through connective tissue to pull on bones, causing skeletal movement. The pull exerted by a muscle is called tension, and the amount of force created by this tension can vary. This enables the same muscles to move very light objects and very heavy objects. In individual muscle fibers, the amount of tension produced depends on the cross-sectional area of the muscle fiber and the frequency of neural stimulation.

    The number of cross-bridges formed between actin and myosin determine the amount of tension that a muscle fiber can produce. Cross-bridges can only form where thick and thin filaments overlap, allowing myosin to bind to actin. If more cross-bridges are formed, more myosin will pull on actin, and more tension will be produced.

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    Human Skeleton And Locomotion

    The skeleton system of the human body plays an important role in the locomotion of the human body. Locomotion depends on the association of the skeletal muscles present within the skeletal system. The system has some rigid forms of connective tissues called bones. Below is a summary of how the skeletal system works:

    • The skeletal system offers shape and posture to the human body.

    • The muscles of the skeletal system provide a framework for the body.

    • It offers a rigid surface for muscles to attach to the tendons.

    • It imparts a type of protection to the internal organs of the human body that are delicate, for example, the brain, spinal cord, lungs etc.

    • The skeletal system assists the body with locomotory movements from one place to another

    • The skeletal system helps in the movement of the sternum and the ribs, thus helping in the process of breathing.

    Structure Of Contractile Proteins

    The monomeric unit of actin is known as G actin or globular actin. Polymers of G actin form F actin or F filaments. Two F filaments wound around each other to form actin. Another protein tropomyosin, run around the F actin. Another protein, troponin is distributed at regular intervals on tropomyosin.

    Fig. 6. Structure of the actin

    Myosin protein is also made up of monomeric known as Meromyosins. Each meromyosin has two regions: globular head and a long tail.

    Fig. 7. Structure of the myosin

    The globular head has ATPase activity and binding site for actin.

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    Changes During The Life

    An animal’s mode of locomotion may change considerably during its life-cycle. Barnacles are exclusively marine and tend to live in shallow and tidal waters. They have two nektonic larval stages, but as adults, they are sessile suspension feeders. Frequently, adults are found attached to moving objects such as whales and ships, and are thereby transported around the oceans.

    Locomotion And Movement In Plants & Animals

    Locomotion and Movement – Introduction | Class 11 Biology

    Plants, in most cases, are unable to travel from one location to another. As a result, they are unable to move around. But plants, on the other hand, move in a variety of other ways. They can also move in reaction to external stimuli. Phototropism, hydrotropism, thigmotropism, geotropism are the type of movements that can take place inside the plants.

    Animals have the most fascinating modes of locomotion, as evidenced by the wide range of behavioural and evolutionary qualities they display.

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    Bipedal Locomotion In Humans

    The earliest ancestors of humans lived in the trees and rarely traveled on the ground. Various theories have been proposed as to why these early ancestors evolved to leave the trees and eventually walk upright in a bipedal fashion. From the perspective of natural selection, researchers believe that walking upright was advantageous because it improved communication, allowed a greater field of vision and also freed up the hands for holding and carrying things as well as throwing weapons.

    To determine whether an early hominid lived in trees or walked upright on the ground, scientists use four main lines of evidence which are bones from the foot, other skeletal bones, footprints and dietary evidence. The most evidence for the emergence of bipedal locomotion in early humans comes from bones, particularly toe bones , plantar rigidity showing that the foot was flatter, the tilt and structure of the pelvis and the way the femur fits into the pelvis. These indicators give scientists information to make assumptions about whether an animal walked upright or lived in the trees. The earliest bipedal ancestor of humans is considered to be Ardipithecus ramidus who often walked on two legs about 4.4 million years ago. Human ancestors from the Australopithecusgenus are thought to be the first full-time upright walkers about 3.5 million years ago. The most famous fossil find from this genus is Lucy Australopithecus afarensis, discovered in Ethiopia and who lived about 3.2 million years ago.

    Different Constraints Affecting Efficiency Economy And Power Relationship In Locomotion

    The study of integrative physiology during locomotion includes the analysis of different types of constraints during walking or running. The inclined plane, carrying loads, use of accessories the effect of different environments and unusual modes of locomotion, such as skipping and jumping, are examples of constraints that can also modify the relation between economy and eff.

    During walking on an inclined ground, there is a progressive reduction in W- production, especially from slopes above +15 to +20% , making negligible its effect on the Wtot . There is also a progressive reduction in pendular transduction with increasing slopes . Therefore, the values of eff at different walking speeds performed from slopes above 1520% is more as compared to the value of muscle eff and the speeds of greater economy and efficiency could be closer during walking at positive slopes as compared to walking on a level ground. The reduction on performance of energy-saving mechanisms added to an increase in work against gravity could change eff values and relationships observed in level walking.

    Metabolic cost at different speeds and two possible training effects for a person with locomotor disabilities. At both situations LRI increased. A: only increased of SSWS B: increased of SSWS and decreased of metabolic cost. SSWS, self-selected walking speed OWS, optimal walking speed LRI, locomotor rehabilitation index.

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    Structure Of Contractile Protein

    Each thin filament is made of two F actins helically wounded to each other. Two filaments of another protein, tropomyosin runs close to it. A complex proteinTroponin is distributed at regular intervals on the tropomyosin.

    Each myosin filament is made of many monomeric proteins called Meromyosins. Each meromyosin has globular head with short arm and tails. Globular head has ATP binding sites.

    Structure Of The Muscle

    Locomotion and Movement Class 11 Notes

    Skeletal Muscle is made up of number of muscle bundles also known as Fascicles. Each muscle bundle is made up of number of muscle fibers. Sarcolemma is a type of plasma membrane which lined the muscle fiber. Sarcolemma encloses the sarcoplasm. Muscle fiber is made up of multiple nuclei, so it is known as Syncytium. The endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber is known as Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum stores calcium ion that participates in muscle contraction. Muscle fiber contain parallelly arranged filaments known as Myofibrils or Myofilaments. The fibrous tissue that surround the skeletal muscle is known as Epimysium.

    Fig. 4. Structure of the muscles

    Myofibrils have characteristic cross-striations due to presence of two proteins Actin and Myosin. The light bands also known as Isotropic, contain actin protein, whereas dark band known as Anisotropic which contains myosin. Actin filaments are thin filaments whereas myosin are thick filaments.

    In the center of each actin band there is a stretch of the elastic fiber known as Z-line. The portion of the myofibril between the two successive Z lines is known as Sarcomere. Sarcomere is considered as the functional unit for muscle contraction.

    Fig. 5. Structure of sarcomere

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