Tuesday, December 5, 2023

# What Is Distance In Geography

## Act: How Do Highways Affect Travel Time

How to read Maps – Scale and Distance (Geography skills)

Step 7: Turn off the layers, Drive Time from Boston .

Step 8: Change the transparency of the Population Density Census Tracts layers to 50 percent.

From the Details pane, click the Content button. Click the three small blue dots and hover your pointer over the word Transparency to open a drop-down list. You can modify the transparency to see an active layer below the top layer. Set it to 50 percent.

Step 9: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select Traffic.

• Q: How are major roads and population distributions related?
• Q: Travel is faster through more densely populated regions than less densely populated areas because of the high-volume transportation networks that are most commonly found there. Access to major roads, even if they are congested, enables faster commutes.

## What Is Relative Speed In Time And Distance

Relative speed is the rate at which two moving bodies are separating from / coming closer to each other. For example, if two persons are moving at 10 km/h and 20 km/h in opposite directions, then their relative speed would be 10 + 20 = 30 km / h, i.e., the distance between them after one hour would be 30 km.

## Why Is Simultaneity Relative

The two people do not actually observe the lightning strike at the same time. Even at the speed of light, the image of the strike takes time to reach each observer, and, since each is at a different distance from the event, the travel theory of relativity implies that simultaneity is relative to a frame of axes

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## What Is The Friction Of Distance

The friction of distance implies that the length of the journey and its difficulty are a consequence of the energy and resources like money needed to complete the journey. Besides time, the cost to cover distance also increases if the distance and the friction are increased. Distance covered and the friction equals the time taken to complete the journey. If the friction is fixed, the time becomes limited up to a certain point whereas the distance becomes fixed too. If friction to cover a particular distance is reduced, the time is taken to complete the distance definitely reduces.

## When Should You Avoid Overtaking

Explanation: Before you move out to overtake, you must be sure that its safe to complete the manoeuvre and in order to be sure, you must be able to see far enough ahead. If anything is obstructing or restricting your view, you cant know whether the road ahead is clear and, therefore, you shouldnt overtake.

## Explore: Are We Taking The Long Way Around

Both Manchester and Worchester are at the outer edge of the 60-minute drive time zone. However, as the crow flies, it is 38 miles to Worchester and 48 miles to Manchester.

• Q: What city is located less than 50 miles from Boston , but cannot be accessed in a 120-minute commute? Hint: water contributes to the time.
• Q: The travel time is so long because you have to drive around Cape Cod Bay.

The other forms of transportation, such as water and air travel, might change travel time and accessibility.

## Distance Decay And Its Use In Gis

Distance decay is a phenomenon observed between locations or ethnic groups- the further apart they are, the less likely it is that they will interact very much. In essence, distance decay describes how things like communication and infrastructure break down relative to distance from a cultural center. This leads to cultural differences between an urban center and its outskirts, or between two distant, neighboring settlements.

Geographically speaking, distance decay can be explained by Waldo Toblers First Law of Geography. This is the assertion that Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things, and can be applied to a range of different geographical concepts, from human settlements, to geolinguistics, to ecology.

Though the decay part of distance decay carries a negative connotation, distance decay isnt always a bad thing. Distance decay between two groups of people is what gives rise to things like languages and regional customs, and the distance decay between biomes is part of what makes the earth such an ecologically diverse place.

## What Is The 5 Second Rule In Driving

If it takes you 3-5 seconds to pass an object after the car ahead of you has passed it, youre at a safe following distance. Youll need more space the faster youre driving, so keep that in mind. If you follow any closer than 3 seconds, youll be tailgating the person in front of you, like a big jerk.

## How Does Distance Decay Affect Migration

Learn Grade 3 – Geography – Area ,Distance and Location

Distance decay can effect migration mainly through the push pull factors. Distance decay is the idea that the further away an idea gets from its source, the less is known about it. Also the many Intervening obstacles between the source and the destination would slow down push/ pull factors even more.

## The Importance Of Transportation

Transport represents one of the most important human activities worldwide as it allows us to mitigate the constraint of geography. It is an indispensable component of the economy and plays a major role in supporting spatial relations between locations. Transport creates links between regions and economic activities, between people and the rest of the world, and as such, generates value. It is composed of core components, which are the modes,;infrastructures, networks, and flows. These components are fundamental for transportation to occur, but they also underline that geography, despite significant technological, social, and economic changes, remains a salient force shaping transportation.

Transport is a multidimensional activity whose importance is:

Transportation as a multidisciplinary endeavor can be approached through several;fields of inquiry where some are at the core of transport geography, such as transport demand, nodes, and networks. In contrast, others are more peripheral, such as natural resources, political geography, and regional geography. Yet, they all contribute to the understanding of transport activities and their impacts on the economy, society, and the environment.

• Core Components of Transportation
• Vehicle Use Indicators, World, 1950-2019
• Transport and Communication Costs Indexes, 1920-2015
• World Rail Network and Rail Systems

## What Is The Distance Between Degrees Of Latitude

Degrees of latitude are parallel so, for the most part, the distance between each degree remains constant. However, the Earth is slightly elliptical in shape and that creates a small variation between the degrees as we work our way from the equator to the north and south poles.

• Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles apart.
• At the equator, the distance is 68.703 miles .
• At the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn , the distance is 68.94 miles .
• At each of the poles, the distance is 69.407 miles .

This is rather convenient when you want to know how far it is between each degree, no matter where you are on Earth. All you need to know is that each minute is approximately one mile.

For example, if we were at 40 degrees north, 100 degrees west, we would be on the Nebraska-Kansas border. If we were to go directly north to 41 degrees north, 100 degrees west, we would have traveled about 69 miles and would now be near Interstate 80.

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## Singularities And Discontinuity Of Latitude/longitude

Longitude has singularities at the Poles and a discontinuity at the Â±180Â° meridian. Also, planar projections of the circles of constant latitude are highly curved near the Poles. Hence, the above equations for delta latitude/longitude may not give the expected answer for positions near the Poles or the Â±180Â° meridian. Consider e.g. the value of Î are on either side of the Â±180Â° meridian, or the value of Ï for the two positions .

If a calculation based on latitude/longitude should be valid for all Earth positions, it should be verified that the discontinuity and the Poles are handled correctly. Another solution is to use n-vector instead of latitude/longitude, since this representation does not have discontinuities or singularities.

## Defining Latitude And Longitude

Longitude is defined as imaginary lines called meridians that run from the north to the south pole. There are a total of 360 meridians. The Prime Meridian runs through the Greenwich Observatory in England, the location agreed upon by a conference in 1884 to be 0 degrees. On the opposite side of the Earth is the international date line at approximately 180 degrees longitude, though the date line does not follow an exact straight line. When a person crosses the international date line traveling from west to east, they move up one day. They move back one day when traveling east to west.

Latitude is defined as imaginary lines called parallels because they are parallel to the equator and to one another. The equator, which runs in a circle around the center of the Earth, divides the planet into north and south hemispheres.

Lines of latitude and longitude intersect, creating a grid that allows anyone in any location to pinpoint a geographic location. There are 360 degrees of longitude , and there are 180 degrees of latitude. To further specify exactly where to find anything on Earth, measurements are stated not only in degrees but also in minutes and seconds. Each degree can be broken into 60 minutes, and each minute can be divided into 60 seconds. Any given location can be described in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds of longitude and latitude.

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## What Is Famous About New York

One of the greatest cities in the world, New York is always a whirlwind of activity, with famous sites at every turn and never enough time to see them all….

• Statue of Liberty. …
• Rockefeller Center & Top of the Rock Observation Deck. …
• Metropolitan Museum of Art. …
• Broadway and the Theater District.

## How Is Distance Related To Time

It is equal to the distance traveled divided by the time. It is possible to find any of these three values using the other two. To find the speed, distance is over time in the triangle, so speed is distance divided by time. To find distance, speed is beside time, so distance is speed multiplied by time.

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## Distance Versus Directed Distance And Displacement

Both distance and displacement measure the movement of an object. Distance cannot be negative, and never decreases. Distance is a scalar quantity, or a magnitude, whereas displacement is a vector quantity with both magnitude and direction. It can be negative, zero, or positive. Directed distance does not measure movement; it measures the separation of two points, and can be a positive, zero, or negative vector.

The distance covered by a vehicle , person, animal, or object along a curved path from a point A to a point B should be distinguished from the straight-line distance from A to B. For example, whatever the distance covered during a round trip from A to B and back to A, the displacement is zero as start and end points coincide. In general the straight-line distance does not equal distance travelled, except for journeys in a straight line.

## Representation Of Distance Decay

Geography Mapwork: Measurement of Distance and Area

Distance decay is represented graphically by a curve line that swoops downward with a concave appearance as the distance on the x-axis increase. Similarly, distance decay may be represented mathematically and is given by the inverse-square law. Distance decay is apparently visible in urban centers and can be seen in different aspects that decline with distance from the Central Business District . Such examples include the density of pedestrian traffic, the quality of shops, the quality of streets, the height of buildings, and the price of land.

## What Is The Gravity Model Ap Human Geography

The Gravity Model holds that the interaction between two places can be determined by the product of the population of both places, divided by the square of their distance from one another. The primary implication of this model is that distance is not the only determining factor in the interaction between two cities.

## What Is The Physical Characteristics Of New York City

Physical FeaturesNew York City. Known for its busy New York city and tall skyscrapers, the state of New York is located in the north east region of the United States. Although the state is best known for its urban atmosphere, most of the state is occupied by forests, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes.

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## How Much Distance Does A Degree Minute And Second Cover On Your Maps

The distances vary. A degree, minute, or second of latitude remains fairly constant from the equator to the poles; however a degree, minute, or second of longitude can vary greatly as one approaches the poles and the meridians converge.

At 38 degrees North latitude :

• One degree of;latitude;equals approximately 364,000 feet , one minute equals 6,068 feet , and one-second equals 101 feet.;
• One-degree of;longitude;equals 288,200 feet , one minute equals 4,800 feet , and one second equals 80 feet.

Illustration showing longitude convergence. Latitude distances remain constant.

## What Is The Example Of Physical Geography

Physical geography is the study of the earths surface. An example of physical geography is knowledge of earths oceans and land masses. The study of the natural features of the earths surface, especially in its current aspects, including land formations, climate, currents, and distribution of flora and fauna.

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## Reduction Of The Friction Of Distance

If friction is reduced, it becomes easier to move from one point to another, not forgetting that the time taken and costs are reduced. If we save the time and money, the saved resources could be used on another journey or to cover even a longer distance. With frequent movement from point to another through saving of time and money, interactions between the two locations tend to increase, bringing in the concept of time-space convergence. Time-space convergence focuses on the distance that can be covered in a specific amount of time.

Different means of transport take different spans of time to cover a specific distance. Generally, time-space convergence looks into how a means of transport can travel longer distances in a short period of time. Some means like jets reduce the friction of distance which allows them to cover longer distances in a shorter period of time compared to other means like ships, rail, and road transport. However, as the air means tend to cover longer distances in shorter periods of time, their costs become higher. For other means like ship and rail, although they take longer to cover shorter distances, they are cost-effective.

## The Purpose Of Transportation

The unique purpose of transportation is to overcome space, which is shaped by a variety of human and physical;constraints such as distance, time, administrative divisions, and topography. Jointly, they confer friction to any movement, commonly known as the friction of distance .;In an ideal world, transportation would come at no effort in terms of cost and time and unlimited capacity and spatial reach. Under such circumstances, geography would not matter. However, geography can be a significant constraint to transport in the real world since it trades space for time and money and can only be partially circumscribed. The extent to which this is done has a cost that varies significantly according to factors such as the length of the trip, the capacity of modes and infrastructures, and the nature of what is being transported. Transport geography can be understood from a series of;eight core principles:

• Transportation is the spatial linking of derived demand.
• Distance is a;relative concept involving space, time, and effort.
• Space is concomitantly the generator, support, and a constraint for mobility.
• The relation between space and time can converge or diverge.
• A location can be central, where it generates and attract traffic, or an intermediate element where traffic transits through.
• To overcome geography, transportation must consume space.
• Transportation seeks massification but is constrained by atomization.
• Velocity is a modal, intermodal, and managerial effort.

## Solution To Distance Decay

Distance decay was a great problem that affected people in the past since movement from point A to point B was greatly hindered. The mode of transport has developed over time from traveling on foot, to using camel and donkey backs, to motor vehicles and ships and even faster airplanes. Distance decay will soon become a thing of the past as technology continues to develop. The world is developing at a very fast pace with the developed nations encouraging their people to innovate. The renovation has seen talented people develop telecommunications from the use of telephone booths to mobile phones which almost every person owns. Growth has also been experienced with the development of the web where a person can get all the information they need in the comfort of their homes. The internet has also helped a lot in preventing distance decay to continue. With a good internet connection, one can do business in various nations unlike when they needed to travel for transactions to be made.

## Use Of Distance Decay In Gis

AP Human Geography – Friction of Distance and Distance Decay

A UCLA paper that generated interest after it published the results of a GIS study on highlighting the likely location of Osama bin Laden;used distance decay as part of the analysis performed. ;Published in MITs International Review, the study incorporated a;distance-decay model based on Osama bin Ladens last known location in Tora Bora. ;Calculating the probability of a 99% chance that bin Laden was near Tora Bora and a 1% chance that the terrorist would be found in Washington D.C., individual circles of probability were calculated in intervals extending away from Tora Bora . ;In additon to distance decay theory, the study also incorporated;island biogeography theory, and life history characteristics in making a prediction about Osama bin Ladens location. ;The study had;88.9% that bin Laden was hiding within 300km of Tora Bora and named;Kurram, Pakistan as the most likely location. ;While ultimately, Osama bin Laden was located and killed in;Abbottabad, at 268 km it was within the same distance range and country as the study had predicted.

Distance decay theory in GIS can be used for other purposes such as the effects of time and distance on public transportation ridership, crime analysis, and health care.

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