Effect Of Writing Interventions On Secondary Outcome Measures
Between-Group Differences in Secondary Outcome Measures at 1-Month and 3-Month Follow-Ups
Multimedia Appendix 3 includes the observed means and estimated marginal means for the secondary outcome measures at baseline and follow-ups. The results for the between-group differences in secondary outcomes are displayed in Multimedia Appendix 4. There was only one significant group-by-time interaction for any of the secondary outcome measures examined. For self-reported health, there was a significant difference between the BFW and CW groups in changes from baseline to 1-month follow-up , reflecting an increase in self-reported health in the CW group and a decrease in the BFW group . However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in changes in self-reported health from baseline to the 3-month follow-up . There were no significant group-by-time interactions for scores of the PHQ-9, GAD-7, revised SDSCA, or health care utilization.
Within-Group Differences in Secondary Outcome Measures at 1-Month and 3-Month Follow-Ups
Example : Custom Function And Model
Shamelessly adapted from here .
# Create a function for left-censored datacustom.function < - function # Create a modelcustom.model = " model lambda ~ dgamma }"# Simulate some dataset.seedproject.data < - as.matrix)# Run analysiscustom.mcmc < - bfw, silent = TRUE)# Print analysisround#> Mode HDIlo HDIhi ROPElo ROPEhi ROPEin n #> 1.03 1.00 1.06 7.64 14.33 78.03 10000.00
What Does Bfw Stand For
What does BFW mean? This page is about the various possible meanings of the acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term: BFW.
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The Free Will And Scientific Determinism Questionnaire
To measure such dimensions, Paulhus and Carey developed the Free Will and Scientific Determinism Questionnaire , a 27-item self-report scale underlying a four-factor structure of BFW, BFD, BSD, and BUP. The scale was originally validated in two samples of undergraduate students and one community sample. The adequacy of the four-factor solution was confirmed in all the samples, with each scale showing satisfactory psychometric properties. Women scored significantly lower than men in BSD in both the two undergraduate samples and the community sample, whilst women scored significantly higher than men in BFW in the community sample.
In addition, recent research has indicated that those believing in either free will or determinism tend to express a stronger orientation towards passionate relationships , with such beliefs potentially triggering a variety of conceptual differences and practical consequences, depending on the specific contexts and types of experience in which they may have occurred. Feltz argued that when BFW are absent, individuals tend to be more likely to experience difficulty maintaining meaningful relationships with others and interpersonal conflicts may become more common . However, to the best of our knowledge, the available evidence about such relationships is scarce, requiring further investigation.
Why Does Queer Psychology Matter
With the dawning of a new decade , I want to take a moment and recognize the progress our psychological community has made with the treatment of lesbian, transgender, gay, bisexual, queer folks.
The psychological community has a contentious history with the LGBTQ+ community, but we’ve begun a process of amends. It wasn’t that long ago that the DSM, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, deemed homosexuality as a “psychiatric disorder.” In 1973, the APA ruled in a historic moment that being gay was no longer a psychiatric illness, stating, “Clearly homosexuality per se does not meet these requirements: Many homosexuals are satisfied with their sexual orientation and demonstrate no generalized impairment.” It wouldn’t be until 1987 that it was fully removed from the DSM, and one Psychology Today author describes the history of this quite succinctly.
In 1998, the APA issued a firm statement: “The APA opposes any psychiatric treatment, such as ‘reparative’ or ‘conversion’ therapy.” Thank goodness. The Trevor Project, an organization focused on suicide prevention for the LGBTQ community, notes that conversion therapy amplifies the shame, self-hatred, and stigma so many LGBTQ people already experience, leading to increased rates of depression, attempted suicide, and self-destructive behavior.
Limitations And Future Directions
There were several limitations to this study. A clear limitation was the small sample size, which reduced the statistical power such that only moderately large effect sizes for differences between the two groups, if present, could have been detected. Second, given the preliminary nature of this trial, multiple comparisons of several independent variables were conducted without control of the alpha levels to reduce the risk of Type 1 errors . However, given that there were few significant results, this is unlikely to be a significant issue.
Perhaps, most importantly, the generalizability of the results of this study was limited by the profile of the sample who registered to participate. Although the conservative eligibility criteria were set in line with the exploratory nature of the study, baseline levels of diabetes distress, depression, and anxiety were low, leaving very little room for improvement. It has recently been suggested that therapeutic writing may offer the most benefit for those with moderate levels of symptoms, as those with very few symptoms cannot improve their symptoms with this treatment and those with severe symptoms may require stronger treatment . Therefore, future trials of therapeutic writing in adults with diabetes should apply a minimum threshold for diabetes distress, to examine its efficacy among those with elevated symptoms, as well as the maximum cut-off scores for depression and anxiety to exclude those with a likely mental illness.
Sample Size And Power Analysis
For this preliminary study, we powered the study to detect a moderately large effect size of 0.7, consistent with previous BFW studies . Based on a statistical power of 0.80 and a probability level of .05, a sample size of 34 per group was needed for two-tailed tests to detect an effect size of 0.7. Given the expected attrition rate of approximately 34% , our target total sample size was 104.
However, the unexpected difficulty encountered in recruiting participants to the trial caused extensive delays in the study timeline. Many different methods were employed to recruit the required sample size, and the recruitment period was extended to assist the effort. Yet, by the end of the extended recruitment period, only 88 of the 104 participants had been recruited . Of these, 72 participants had completed their baseline measures and were therefore eligible for inclusion in ITT analyses. Revised power analyses were conducted to determine the effect sizes that could be detected with the obtained sample size. Moreover, the unintended unequal allocation of participants eligible for analyses in the two groups would further reduce the statistical power, as a 2:1 ratio requires 12% more participants than a trial using 1:1 to detect the same effect size with equivalent power . Therefore, for ITT analyses in this study , moderately large effect sizes of Cohen d0.73 could be detected by two-tailed tests, given a statistical power of 0.80 and a Cronbach alpha of .05.
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Stimuli And Experimental Task
Stimuli consisted of criminal vignettes each describing an event during which a hypothetical offender named John engages intentionally in criminal offenses . The vignettes represent the typical crimes committed in the USA, including theft by taking, theft by fraud, property destruction, assault, burglary, robbery, kidnapping, rape and murder.
Immediately after scanning, subjects completed several psychological surveys in a randomized order. First, subjects completed the Free Will and Determinism questionnaire and were asked to rate their BFW, scientific determinism and closely related constructs . Second, subjects were asked to list what kinds of punishment they were imagining for punishment scores of 1, 25, 50, 75 and 100 to examine the internal scale of punishment applied during the experiment. Third, subjects were asked to rate their subjective affective experience elicited by each of the legal vignettes using a 5-point rating scale version of the Self-Assessment Manikin . Fourth, subjects completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a control measure to ensure that predicted group effects were not driven by group differences in empathy . Finally, subjects completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale as a control measure to assure that the hypothesized group effects were not due to group differences in identifying and describing emotions .
The Move Into Adult Archetypes Is Key For Another Group Of People Besides Parentsus The Birth Workers Working From Our Child Archetypes Can Increase The Likelihood And Severity Of The Burnout And Demoralization That So Famously Plagues This Profession
When we are inhabiting our adult archetypes, we can make accurate assessments of the situations in which we find ourselves, and we can identify the necessary strategies for moving through those situations again, with resilience and self-forgiveness. This doesnt mean that we wont sometimes feel sad, or frustrated, or angry of course we will! It means that, rather than banging our heads against these feelings, or drowning in them, we will be able to move through them, integrate them into ourselves, and move forward once again in wisdom and compassion.
About Koyuki Smith
Koyuki Smith is the Director of Communications for Birthing from Within. She loves thinking, teaching, and writing about the universal experiences of initiation and transformation. She lives in Harlem with her husband, her two sons, and a little dog, too. Learn more about her work, or get in touch with her, at www.BirthingFromWithinNewYork.com
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As Birth Professionals We Have The Chance To Offer The Potential For Parents To Move Towards Adult Archetypes Before The Birth Experience
Parents who enter the birth experience in child archetypes with magical thinking, defeatist attitudes, a strict reliance on factual information, and/or strictly defined rules for their own behavior may be at a higher risk for emotional trauma. This is because they havent awakened the parts of themselves that feel self-compassion and think in terms of being resourceful and making in-the-moment decisions in response to in-the-moment realities. Its not that parents who are inhabiting adult archetypes are always happy with everything that happens the birth initiation inevitably cracks us open in one way or another. But adult archetypes allow for more expansive understandings and possibilities, giving us the opportunity to move through those cracks and out of them, rather than being stuck there with nothing to say except, This wasnt supposed to happen!, or I should have done better!
Knowing this, Birthing From Within training programs fill mentors and doulas repertoires with processes and tools designed to validate the emotional energy of clients child archetypes while simultaneously stretching to awaken the adult archetypes within them. With this training, BFW professionals learn how to invite parents to develop the ability to move through their initiations with resourcefulness, and with compassion and forgiveness for themselves.
Progress Starts With Education
Despite being a trained therapist from a social justice-oriented psychology program, most of what I know about gender and sexual identity has been self-taught through my own research and engagement with my community. For many therapist training programs, sexual and gender minorities’ needs are often treated as an afterthought rather than an integral part of our curriculum.
And therapist or not, it can be hard to keep up with the plethora of terms around LGBTQ+ folks’ identity . Our community is ever-evolving and expanding even as a gay person myself, it can be hard to keep up!
We’re in an era of increasing gender fluidity, social acceptance of LGBTQ+ folks, and expanding civil rights. Still, though, public knowledge and education lag behind. We’ve come so far, and yet we have a ways to go.
When laws are passed, or influential organizations like the American Psychological Association recognize a need for more culturally sensitive services, that doesn’t mean society as a whole jumps on board. While the APA is down with “they” as a singular pronoun, I’d guess most of society doesn’t understand it. I’ve had dear friends within the LGBT community ask me to explain my non-binary gender identity to them.
In upcoming posts, I hope to explore:
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Example : Normal Distributed Data
Compute mean and standard deviation estimates.Please see manual for more examples.
# Apply MASS to create normal distributed data # mean = 0 and standard deviation = 1set.seeddata < - data.frame, empirical=TRUE) )# Run normal distribution analysis on data## Use 50 000 iterations, set seed for replication.### Null value assessment is set at ROPE = -0.5 - 0.5 for meanmcmc < - bfw, silent = TRUE)# Run t-distribution analysis on datamcmc.robust < - bfw, run.robust = TRUE, silent = TRUE)# Use psych to describe the normally distributed datapsych::describe#> n mean sd median trimmed mad min max range skew kurtosis#> X1 100 0 1 0.17 0.04 0.81 -3.26 2.19 5.45 -0.57 0.53# Print summary of normal distribution analysis## Only the most relevant information is shown hereround#> Mode ESS HDIlo HDIhi ROPElo ROPEhi ROPEin n#> mu: Y -0.003 49830 -0.201 0.196 0 0 100 100#> sigma: Y 0.995 48890 0.869 1.150 0 100 0 100# Print summary of t-distribution analysisround#> Mode ESS HDIlo HDIhi ROPElo ROPEhi ROPEin n#> mu: Y 0.027 25887 -0.167 0.229 0 0 100 100#> sigma: Y 0.933 10275 0.749 1.115 0 100 0 100
Having Understood Those Concepts We Come To The Real Question: Why Is The Study Of Archetypes So Important For Those Of Us Who Work With Pregnant Birthing And Postpartum Parents
Well, there are two main reasons. The first is pretty straightforward: if we can recognize the archetypes from which people are moving, we can communicate more effectively! Thinking in terms of archetypes allows us to move out of judgmental reactions and into deep listening instead. Listening for archetypes informs how we work with parents, how we truly personalize our mentoring to precisely what each parent is bringing to each moment. As we listen deeply, we can begin to identify who within them is speaking, and thus become able to speak directly to that archetype, beginning by validating its needs and desires, rather than contradicting or agreeing with it.
This brings us to the second reason that archetypes are important to us as birth workers. Once we have validated the archetype from which a parent is speaking, we can begin to engage in processes and dialogues that invite parents to explore other archetypes and therefore, expanded possibilities for new beliefs and/or actions.
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Icipant Recruitment And Attrition
A participant flow diagram is displayed in Figure 2. Over a 21-month period, only 169 individuals provided consent to commence the screening procedure during that period. Of these, 162 commenced the online screening procedure and 102 were eligible to participate, 88 of whom proceeded to online registration and were randomized to either the BFW group or the CW group . Of these participants, 25 allocated to the BFW group and 48 allocated to the CW group completed baseline assessment. One participant in the BFW group formally withdrew from the study after completing the baseline questionnaires but before commencing the intervention. Thus, 24 participants in the BFW group and 48 in the CW group were eligible for inclusion in the ITT analyses .
Participant flow diagram. GAD-7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items PHQ-9: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items T1DM: type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus.
At the 1-month follow-up, 21 BFW participants and 33 CW participants completed the questionnaires, while at the 3-month follow-up, 17 BFW participants and 23 CW participants completed the questionnaires. Within the BFW group, 21 participants completed all three writing sessions . In comparison, 37 of the CW participants completed all three writing sessions . There was no significant difference between the BFW group and the CW group in the proportion of participants who completed all three writing sessions, of those who commenced the first session .
Example : Same Data But With Outliers
# Add 10 outliers, each with a value of 10.biased.data < - rbind))# Run normal distribution analyis on biased databiased.mcmc < - bfw, silent = TRUE)# Run t-distribution analysis on biased databiased.mcmc.robust < - bfw, run.robust =TRUE, silent = TRUE)# Use psych to describe the biased datapsych::describe#> n mean sd median trimmed mad min max range skew kurtosis#> X1 110 0.91 3.04 0.25 0.21 0.92 -3.26 10 13.3 2.3 4.38# Print summary of normal distribution analysis on biased data## Only the most relevant information is shown hereround#> Mode ESS HDIlo HDIhi ROPElo ROPEhi ROPEin n#> mu: Y 0.922 50000 0.346 1.50 0 92 8.05 110#> sigma: Y 2.995 49069 2.662 3.48 0 100 0.00 110# # Print summary of t-distribution analysis on biased dataround#> Mode ESS HDIlo HDIhi ROPElo ROPEhi ROPEin n#> mu: Y 0.168 29405 -0.015 0.355 0 0.008 99.992 110#> sigma: Y 0.679 17597 0.512 0.903 0 99.128 0.872 110
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Eligibility And Exclusion Criteria
- Type 1 or type 2 diabetes, self-reported as diagnosed by a general practitioner or endocrinologist
- Email address and access to the internet
- Ability to read and write in English with ease
- Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score > 8 or Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score > 8
- Current suicidal thoughts, as indicated by a response of > 1 to item 9 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale
- Self-reported diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or a psychotic disorder
- Self-reported diagnosis of dementia or another cognitive disorder
- Engagement in current psychological therapy