Thursday, May 12, 2022

What Does Ageing Population Mean In Geography

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Countries with large elderly populations depend on smaller pools of workers in which to collect taxes to pay for higher health costs, pension benefits, and other publicly funded programs. This is becoming more common in advanced economies where retirees live on fixed incomes with much smaller tax brackets than workers. The combination of lower tax revenue and higher spending commitments on health care, pension. and other benefits is a major concern for advanced industrialized nations.

China’s One Child Policy

  • Couples in towns & cities could only have one child.
  • In rural areas you could get permission to have two children, if both parents are only children, or if the first child is a girl.
  • If you have more children than your quota, you would be fined and loose certain benefits.
  • Ethnic minorities could have more than two children per family since their numbers were low.
In December 2013, 34 years after the Chinese introduced the One Child Policy the government announced it would be relaxed due to the gender imbalance the county is facing and also the increasing ageing population they will face in the future. Check out the two videos below, which highlight some of the problems and also question without the policy would the population results have been better.

Effects Of An Ageing Population

  • Healthcare – there will be a greater need for healthcare, particularly geriatric wards and for expensive specialist health services such as hip replacements. This will mean higher costs and also the possibility of a shortage of staff.
  • Welfare services – an older population will need an increase in services such as meals on wheels and home care. This will require extra staff and will also cost more.
  • Housing issues – there will also be housing problems as there will be an increase in demand for retirement homes. These are expensive and could lead to an increase in taxes paid by the working population.
  • Economic costs – as well as the increased costs for health and welfare services, there could also be increased pension costs. This could result in a fall in the value of pensions causing increases in pensioner poverty, or tax rises may be required to meet the needs of the increasing population of pensioners.

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Increase The Extent And Improve The Design Of Green Spaces

There is a strong evidence-base to suggest that public and green spaces can have ripple positive outcomes for the physical, mental and psychological health of urban residents ,,. Green spaces can promote physical activity among older people, with cross-sectional surveys linking the engagement with open spaces to the increased life satisfaction, and reduced loneliness and social isolation of the elderly,. Green spaces have also played a crucial role as familiar escapes during the recent COVID-19 pandemic and other hazards.

Population ageing and shrinking open up numerous possibilities for new approaches to increase the extent and improve the design of green spaces, and open spaces more generally. Such approaches would need to put more emphasis on the multi-functionality of the urban landscape and create synergies among different age groups,,.

At the level of the individual green or public space, new urban designs must consider principles of inclusivity to ensure both the accessibility/safety of the elderly, as well as integrate elements/functionalities that would increase their satisfaction . Furthermore, green/public areas would need to be closer to residential homes and consider issues of social connection and mobility ,.

The Impact Of An Ageing And Declining Population

An Aging Population: What does that Mean?  The Global ...

Across Europe there has been a drop in fertility leading to an ageing population. This can cause problems and these problems can arise at both ends of the age structure.

An increased population of older people means that:

  • there is an increased demand for health and social care
  • it becomes increasingly difficult for governments to provide satisfactory pensions, which are ultimately funded by taxes paid by the working population.

The reduced numbers of babies and children means that:

  • there is less need for schools and school teachers
  • industries which provide products for children – for example pram manufacturers – may suffer
  • in the longer term, companies may have difficulty recruiting young workers
  • the economically active group gets smaller and has to support a growing dependent population

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An Aging Society: A Burden

Because population aging is equated to individual aging all too often, one tends to highlight problems for aging societies, in particular problems related to the costs of health and pension programs for the elderly. On this subject some issues need to be clarified and some myths should be dispelled.

First, the situation of old people in most countries has improved greatly largely as a result of postWorld War II social programs. There have even been hard economic times when their situation has deteriorated less than that of younger people.

Second, health and pension costs will certainly continue to increase in aging societies, but at what rate will this happen? With regard to health Zweifel et al. have shown that increases in medical costs are more closely linked to the number of old-age deaths than to the size of the elderly population, and the number of old-age deaths is increasing much less rapidly than the size of the elderly population . The same is not true for pensions, whose costs are linked directly to the number of old people. However, one should not forget that retired people also pay taxes, both on their income and on consumption. As people age, their material needs decrease, however, and this might be reflected in their pension requirements.

Third, although incomes are on average lower at old age than at other ages, the elderly often hold a large share of the collective wealth through their assets, in particular by owning of their dwellings .

Why Do Populations Age

Factors that can impact population age distribution include:

  • Life expectancy increases due to improved lifestyle and importantly, access to quality health care drugs, treatments, expertise, surgical procedures, technology.
  • Birth rate decline itself is driven by a number of factors:
  • Improved availability, education and effectiveness of contraceptive measures
  • The rising costs of living influencing peoples decisions whether to have children and how many
  • Increasing number of women working
  • Changing social attitudes
  • The rise of individualism
  • Lack of inward migration
  • A rise in health care spending correlates to the rise in life expectancy

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    How Does Median Age Vary Across The World

    Median age provides an important single indicator of the age distribution of a population. It provides the age midpoint of a population there are the same number of people who are older than the median age as there are younger than it.

    In the map we see the median age in all countries in the world.

    The global average median age was 29.6 years in 2015 half of the world population were older than 29.6 years, and half were younger. Japan had the highest median age at 46.3 years. The youngest was Niger at 14.9 years.

    Overall we see that higher-income countries, across North America, Europe and East Asia tend to have a higher median age.

    What Does This Mean

    The Ageing Population – What does it mean for us? | #BBKBusiness
    • A wide base means there are lots of young people, and suggests a high birth rate.
    • A narrow base means a smaller proportion of young people, suggesting a low birth rate.
    • A wide middle, tall pyramid means an ageing population, suggesting that there is a long life expectancy.

    Some reasons for high birth rates include:

    • need for large families, eg to work in rural areas
    • lack of family planning
    • people have many children because many infants die

    Some reasons for falling death rates include:

    • increasing wealth
    • better farming techniques

    Remember, though, that the shape of pyramids can also be affected by migration. This population pyramid for the UAE shows the effects of lots of male workers arriving to work in these countries.

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    Population Aging Elder Care And Work

    Population aging has been described as one of the most important demographic factors that will shape policy and influence workers lives during this century . Projections of growth in the population aged 65 and older and aged 80 or 85 or older are common and quite significant across most developed countries including the EU, the US, and Canada. Growth estimates in the proportion of seniors result from the aging of the baby boom generation born between 1946 and 1964, lower fertility rates, and longer life expectancy. Fortunately, in most countries, seniors are living healthier lives, with increased opportunities for living more years independently without serious disability or impairment. The number of working-age adults will shrink, however, even if retirement is delayed for a few years, and consequently a higher proportion of workers will simultaneously and/or sequentially be involved in combining paid employment with providing care and support to a child, ailing spouse or partner, parent, in-law or other older relative, or a close friend.

    The implications for workplaces and workers are two-fold: first, many workplaces are or will be adapting to the need to retain older workers. In areas where labor is in short supply or skills are specialized, the retention of older workers will be a significant concern. Many older workers have a preference for part-time work or will find flexible hours an attractive option.

    Making Population Policies Work

    Iran’s Policy was:Estonia’s Policy was:

    • In Estonia they were concerned that the population was going to half by 2050. Therefore they offered incentives to parents to have more children
    • They introduced the ‘mother’s salary’ – which effectively meant women were paid to have children. Working women were given 15 months maternity leave, while non-working women were given $200 a month.
    • Birthrate has increased in Estonia
    • Fertility rate still remains below replacement level, thus meaning the population is still declining.
    • The one-child policy, established in 1979, meant that each couple was allowed just one child. Benefits included increased access to education for all, plus childcare and healthcare offered to families that followed this rule.
    • Birth rate has fallen in China, thus reducing the speed of population growth in the country.

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    How Might An Ageing Population Affect Me

    Its looking likely that we will all need to commit to longer working lives. We know that in the coming years, more of our population will be over 50. These people will have to maintain productivity yet we often now aspire to early retirement.

    We have said to young people: retire in your mid-50s and live to your 90s, says Professor Sarah Harper, founder of the Institute for Population Ageing at Oxford University . So we have people working for only 25 years to contribute to a 90-year lifespan. That is not the way society should be working.

    With an ageing population youll also almost certainly have to pay for your own personal care, unless you live in Scotland where the government has been committed to providing free social care to anyone who needs it since 2002 .

    Dying in the place you choose is also going to become less likely, as people that live longer with more complicated illnesses are more likely to be admitted to hospital and die there. Access to social care is a huge determining factor when it comes to dying at home.

    Many Older Men And Women Remain Employed

    Geography Definitions

    In urban areas, many older men and women remain employed in the formal labour market: half of those in their 60s in the Philippines and Vietnam 40 per cent in Mexico and Brazil and one third in India and Thailand.

    In the informal labour market, there is widespread evidence from Africa, Asia and Latin America of older men and womens ongoing productivity.

    A recent study from Ethiopia highlighted the labour of older men in construction, and trading of older women as housemaids, traders and craft makers. Similarly, in India, older men often run small businesses including trading, while older women undertake domestic support work.

    Crucially, older adults also free up the time of younger people from household responsibilities, enabling them to undertake paid labour.

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    Providing Family Support And Care

    Older adults can also be the mainstay of many families and households providing financial assistance, care and support to all generations yet this is rarely recognised.

    A recent analysis of family roles and relationships across the globe, found that two-thirds of those in their 60s and 70s in South Korea, and one-third in India and the Philippines regularly support or care for a member of their family.

    The same study showed that the majority of older people in their 60s and 70s in the Philippines, South Korea and Mexico regularly provide financial support to a family member.

    Evidence from Latin America reveals that where older people live in multigenerational households, old age benefits are shared with other family members, while in Asia grandparents may transfer financial assistance directly to their grandchildren.

    How Does An Aging Population Affect A Country

    Sixty years ago, average life expectancy in Latin America was 55.7 years. Today, it is nearly 75 years. Improvements in public health, coupled with increases in the quality of life and the level of equality in our societies, have led Latin Americans to live longer.

    The longer we live, however, the more necessary it becomes to rethink some of a countrys social and economic institutions in order to guarantee the well-being of citizens once their working lives come to an end.

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, Uruguay is the country with the oldest population. That nation has levels similar to those of some European countries and is among the countries in the region that started its demographic transition earliest. In other words, there are a larger number of older adults and fewer births.

    Uruguay is experiencing demographic change, which is no different from many other countries although it does have some special characteristics because it is slower. This is what we call the aging of the population. It occurs for two reasons: fewer people are dying and people are having the number of children they want and no more. Those two features are indicators of a countrys social development. Consequently, this demographic change is a very good thing, says Rafael Rofman, a social protection expert at the World Bank.

    Demographic window

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    What Are The Impacts On Individuals

    Aetna Internationals Dr Stella George says:

    The recent report that a fifth of people in England cannot expect good health beyond their 30th birthday is alarming. Every day younger and younger patients are diagnosed with chronic conditions be it serious mental illness, diabetes, asthma or cardiovascular disease. And its not just the UK across the globe lifestyle related diseases are on the rise. This is particularly prevalent in developing countries, with burgeoning middle classes in Asia and the Middle East place strains on health systems not equipped to accommodate or educate them.

    The good news is that these diseases are treatable but we have to act quickly. Patients require unique treatment plans that works with their lifestyle and motivates them to change. Its only then that we will start to see a change in these critical patterns.

    Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Ncert Extra Questions

    The ageing population

    Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type Questions

    Question 1.What is the average sex ratio of the world?Answer:Average sex ratio of the world is 102 males per 100 females.

    Question 2.Define sex ratio.Answer:It is the ratio between the number of women and men in the population of a country.

    Question 3.Which regions have unfavorable sex ratio towards women?Answer:In region where gender discrimination is rampant and where practice of female foeticide, infanticide and domestic violence against women are prevalent have unfavorable sex ratio towards women.

    Question 4.Which country has the highest sex ratio in the world?Answer:Latvia with 85 males per 100 females has the highest sex ratio in the world.

    Question 5.Name the country with lowest sex ratio in the world.Answer:Qatar has the lowest sex ratio with 311 males per 100 females.

    Question 6.Why have many European countries have deficit males?Answer:Many European countries have deficit of males because of better status of females and male-dominanted out migration to different parts of the world.

    Question 7.Age structure represents number of people of different age groups.

    Question 8.What does age-sex pyramid defines?Answer:The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of males and females in different age groups. Populationpyramid is used to show age-sex structure of the population.

    Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Short Answer Type Questions

    • Widespread gender discrimination

    Very Short Answer Type Questions:

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    Social And Economic Implications

    Although population aging represents a success story for humankind , it also poses profound challenges to public institutions that must adapt to a changing age structure.

    The first challenge is associated with the marked increase in the older retired population relative to the shrinking population of working ages, which creates social and political pressures on social support systems. In most developed countries rapid population aging places strong pressure on social security programs. For example, the U.S. social security system may face a profound crisis if radical modifications are not enacted. Cuts in benefits, tax increases, massive borrowing, lower cost-of-living adjustments, later retirement ages, and combinations of these elements are being discussed as the painful policies that may become necessary to sustain pay-as-you-go public retirement programs such as Medicare and Social Security. Privatization and shift to a funded scheme in retirement programs are also considered as potential options to cope with population aging.

    Population aging also presents a great challenge for health care systems. As populations age, the prevalence of disability, frailty, and chronic diseases is expected to increase dramatically. Some experts are concerned that human society may become a “global nursing home” .

    See also:Age Structure and Dependency Fertility, Below-Replacement Life Span Mortality Decline Oldest Old Second Demographic Transition.

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