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How Did Geography Influence Greece’s Economy And Military Technology

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Social And Economic Conditions

Impacts of Geography on Politics and Economy of Ancient Greece

In religious matters Hebrew remained the language of the Jews, although it was paralleled by the limited usage of Greek. Karaism began to appear in the empire in the tenth century but only began to take root after the First Crusade. R. Tobiah b. Eliezer of Kastoria was an important Rabbanite spokesman. Aside from R. Tobiah little if any writing was apparently done in the areas of Midrash, Talmud, and halakhah during this entire period in Byzantium. There was literary activity in southern Italy, but then this area can only be included in the widest definition as to what was territorially part of Byzantine Greece. Additionally, about this time both Rabbanites and Karaites began to come to Byzantium from Muslim territory.

How Did Greeces Physical Geography Help Contribute To The Establishment Of City

Greek city-states likely developed because of the physical geography of the Mediterranean region. The landscape features rocky, mountainous land and many islands. These physical barriers caused population centers to be relatively isolated from each other. The sea was often the easiest way to move from place to place.

How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect The Location Of Cities

Greek city-states likely developed because of the physical geography of the Mediterranean region. The landscape features rocky, mountainous land and many islands. These physical barriers caused population centers to be relatively isolated from each other. The sea was often the easiest way to move from place to place.

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What Impact Did Nearness To The Sea Have On The Development Of Greece

The nearness of the sea to Greece had a major impact on the development of this country.

Greece is surrounded by the Aegean Sea, the Ionian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Thus it is not surprising that trade between other countries flourished in this region. The water ways provided easy access to trade with other countries for both imports and exports. In fact, the Greeks used ships to travel in other countries that were across the seas. They also used them to explore new lands such as Spain and Africa.

The nearness to the sea also meant that they could fish in these waters. This was an important source of protein for them, as meat was very expensive in those days.

The Greeks also used these waters to transport goods and people across their country. It was faster than walk or riding animals across long distances!

Fourth Crusade And Late Byzantine Period


Greece from 1204 to 1821 was the subject of many conquests, divisions, reconquests, and redivisions at the hands of the Normans of Sicily, the Saracens, the Crusaders, the Venetians, the Genoese, the Seljuks, the Bulgars and the Slavs, the Byzantine emperors, the Cumans, the Ottoman Turks, and others.

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Which Sea Was Important For Trade In Greece

There are many types of seas in the world. But, which one is important for trade in Greece?

One of the most important seas in Greek mythology is the Aegean Sea, which was named after the god of all sea creatures. The word Aegean comes from the word aegean. This sea was an important part of Greek history and culture.

The Aegean Sea is a large body of water in the Mediterranean Sea between mainland Greece, Turkey and Crete. It measures about 1,000 miles long and 270 miles wide.

The Aegean Sea contains more than 2,000 islands, many of which were uninhabited until Greek settlers arrived around 1,200 BC. These people were called the Mycenaeans and they traveled from Asia Minor to Greece where they settled on the islands that would later become known as Greece.

They brought with them their own language, customs and religion and created a civilization that lasted for several centuries until it was conquered by Alexander the Great in 480 BC.

Infrastructure Power And Communications

Greece has a modern infrastructure complete with airports, railways, and paved roads and highways. There are a total of 80 airports , 64 of which have paved runways. There are 2,548 kilometers of railways and 117,000 kilometers of highways, 107,406 kilometers of which are paved. As expected from a historically seafaring country, Greece has 12 ports and harbors and a large merchant fleet of more than 700 ships.

Communications are also modern. The country’s telephone system is adequate, with networks reaching all areas for main telephone lines and mobile cellular phones. Most telephone calls are carried by microwave radio relay. Underwater cables transmit calls to the Greek islands. In 1997 there were 5.431 million main lines in use and 328,000 mobile phone users. As of 1998 there were 26 AM radio stations, 88 FM stations, and 4 shortwave stations. In 1999, 64 television stations were operating in Greece. Computers and communications are increasing in popularity and availability. By 1999 there were 23 Internet service providers operating in Greece.

Electrical power in Greece is supplied by lignite-fueled power stations. Lignite is a type of coal. Hydro-electric power is also used. Solar energy and wind power are being considered as alternative energy sources. Total power production in 1998 amounted to 43.677 billion kilowatt hours , while consumption in that year was 42.18 billion kWh.

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Gender Roles And Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Rural men and women traditionally shared agricultural tasks, doing some jointly and dividing others by gender. Land and property have long been owned by both men and women, with husbands and wives contributing fields to the family. As the population became urbanized, this pattern shifted. Among families that operated small shops and workshops, both men and women remained economically active. Among those who sought employment outside the home, women were more likely to work at lower-paid positions and to stop working when they had children. Open access to education and evolving child care arrangements are changing this situation, and women now constitute 45 percent of the paid workforce.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Gender roles were relatively differentiated and male-dominant until recently. Traditionally, men were associated with public spaces and women with private, with the major exception of the role played by women in attending, cleaning, and maintaining churches. There were nevertheless many arenas in which women asserted power or operated in a female-centered world. Their economic role in the family ownership of property position as mother wife, and daughter maintenance of the household religious activities and artistic expression through dancing, music, and crafts all worked in this direction.

How Did The Geography Affect The Development Of Greece

Geography’s Influence on World History, Society and Human Development

the mountains, seas, islands, and climate isolated separated and divided Greece into small groups that became city-states. How did the geography affect the early Greeks ability to get food? The sea allowed the Greeks to trade for food by traveling over water.

Then, how did the mountains affect the Greek way of life?

The climate was good for growing a variety of crops such as olives and grapes. This gave the Greeks crops that they could trade with people from other regions. In these ways, Greeces mountains, climate, and proximity to the sea had important impacts on its social, economic, and political patterns.

How did the geography of ancient Greece influence where people settled and how they made a living?

Greeces steep mountains and surrounding seas forced Greeks to settle in isolated communities. Travel by land was hard, and sea voyages were hazardous. Most ancient Greeks farmed, but good land and water were scarce. Many ancient Greeks sailed across the sea to found colonies that helped spread Greek culture.

How were the geographical features of ancient Greece helpful?

Geography. Mainland Greece is a mountainous land almost completely surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Greece has more than 1400 islands. The country has mild winters and long, hot and dry summers.

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Tourism Travel And Recreation

Principal tourist sites, in addition to the world-famous Parthenon and Acropolis in Athens, include Mt. Olympus , the site of the ancient oracle at Delphi, the Agora at Corinth, the natural spring at the rock of the Acropolis, and the Minoan ruins on Crete. Operas, concerts, ballet performances, and ancient Greek dramas are presented at the Athens Festival each year from July to September during July and August, Greek classics also are performed in the open-air theater at Epidaurus, 40 km east of Árgos. Popular sports include swimming at the many beaches, sailing, water-skiing, fishing, golf, and mountain climbing.

The Greek government encourages tourists and facilitates their entry and accommodation. A passport is needed for admission residents of the United States, Australia, Canada, and 37 other countries do not require a visa for a stay of up to 90 days.

About 14,180,000 tourists visited Greece in 2002. There were 330,970 hotel rooms in 2003 with 628,170 beds. The average length of stay that same year was seven nights.

In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the cost of staying in Athens at $294 per day. Elsewhere in the country, daily expenses ranged from $53 to $296.

Which Aspect Of Greek Geography Made It A Difficult Place To Unite Politically

a political system based on independent city-states where everyone could be left alone to do their own thing. Because it was so hard for Ancient Greeks to communicate with each other due to mountainous terrain and isolated islands, they created. Mountains and seas made unity difficult for city-states.

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What Lasting Impacts Did Roman Culture Have

The ancient Romans have many lasting effects on the modern world, such as, but not limited to: Creation of law, language influences, art, literature, infrastructure, and city planning. Rome also had an impact on the spread of Christianity. A major influence on modern time was the Roman system of law.

When Did Ancient Greece Start And End


Ancient Greek civilization flourished from the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended about 1200 BCE, to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BCE. By that time, Greek cultural influence had spread around the Mediterranean and, through Alexander the Greats campaign of conquest, as far afield as India.

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The Finley Model And Its Aftermath

At present the most widely accepted model of the ancient Greek economy is that which was first set forth by Moses Finley in 1973. This view owes much to the Weber-Hasebroek-Polanyi line of analysis and holds that the ancient Greek economy was fundamentally different from the market economy that predominates in most of the world today. Not only was the ancient Greek economy much smaller in scale than economies today, it also differed greatly in quality.

Although the ancient Greek word oikonomia is the root of our modern English word economy, the two words are not synonymous. Whereas today economy refers to a distinct sphere of human interactions involving the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, oikonomia meant household management, a familial activity that was subsumed or embedded in traditional social and political institutions. True, the Greeks produced and consumed goods, engaged in various forms of exchanges including long-distance trade, and developed monetary systems employing coinage, but they did not see such activities as being part of a distinct institution which we call the economy.

How Did Geography Affect The Greek City

Greek city-states likely developed because of the physical geography of the Mediterranean region. The landscape features rocky mountainous land and many islands. These physical barriers caused population centers to be relatively isolated from each other. The sea was often the easiest way to move from place to place.

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Jewish Immigrations Into Greece

The important Jewish communities which existed after the Fourth Crusade were Crete, Corinth, Coron , *Modon, *Patras, and *Chios. The *Romaniots the acculturized Jewish inhabitants of Greece were Greek-speaking. Until recently Greek was still spoken by the Jews of Epirus, Thessaly, Ioannina, Crete, and Chalcis . From the end of the 14th century refugees immigrated from Spain to Greece, and from the end of the 15th century from Portugal and Sicily. Jews who were also expelled from Navarre, Aragon, Naples, Provence, and elsewhere in the Iberian Peninsula and other Mediterranean Papal States in the late 15th and 16th centuries migrated to the Greek Peninsula. In towns such as Trikkala, Larissa, Volos, and above all in Salonika the Sephardim introduced their own language and customs. With the flight of the Jews from Hungaria in 1376 many Jews settled in the towns of Kavalla and Siderokastron they brought their special customs with them. As a result of Sultan Suleiman’s journey to Hungaria in 1525, a number of Jews emigrated from there to Greece , which was actually part of the Ottoman Empire then. The descendants of the Hungarian Jews were completely absorbed by the Sephardim after a few generations. A third group in Greek Jewry was that of the Italian-speaking Jews of Corfu, whose ancestors were expelled from Apulia in southern Italy.

Military Equipment Inventories And Acquisitions

Globalization and Trade and Poverty: Crash Course Economics #16

the inventory of the Hellenic Armed Forces consists mostly of a mix of imported weapons from Europe and the US, as well as a limited number of domestically produced systems, particularly naval vessels Germany is the leading supplier of weapons systems to Greece since 2010 Greece’s defense industry is capable of producing a range of military hardware, including naval vessels and associated subsystems note – in addition to finalizing an update to the Mutual Defense Cooperation Agreement with the US, Greece also entered into a security agreement with France in 2021 that included the sale of frigates and fighter aircraft to augment its aging weapons systems

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How Did Geography Influence The Political Economic And Social Development Of The Greek City States

Greek city-states likely developed because of the physical geography of the Mediterranean region. The landscape features rocky, mountainous land and many islands. These physical barriers caused population centers to be relatively isolated from each other. The sea was often the easiest way to move from place to place.

Consular Information Sheet : August 23 2006

Country Description: Greece is a developed and stable democracy with a modern economy.

Entry/Exit Requirements: A passport is required, but no visa is needed for tourist or business stays of up to three months. That period begins when entering any of the following countries which are parties to the Schengen agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. For other entry requirements, travelers should contact the Embassy of Greece at 2221 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone 939-5800, or Greek consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Tampa, New York, and San Francisco, and Greek embassies and consulates around the world. Visit the Embassy of Greece web site at for the most current visa information.

Crime: Crimes against tourists have occurred at popular tourist sites and on crowded public transportation, particularly in Athens. Reports of date or acquaintance rape also occasionally occur, though there have been very few reported cases of sexual assault against Americans. The majority of these offenses take place on the islands. The usual safety precautions practiced in any urban or tourist area should be practiced during a visit to Greece.

Information for Victims of Crime:

Visit the website of the Greeces national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at .

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How Did Geography Influence Greek Development

Because of the agricultural advantages of living by the sea, many Greeks chose to develop their farms there. In addition, the mild climate allowed for many Greeks to become traders and pirates, which made ancient Greek society cosmopolitan.

Ancient Greece was made of hundreds of small islands and mainland regions that spanned across the Aegean, Mediterranean and Ionian seas. As the climate inland was arid and difficult to work with, whereas the coastal climate was mild, many communities formed around the coast. Due to Greeces land being rugged, many of the cities were interspersed and became insular.

Living by the coast influenced jobs in ancient Greece. Many people became sailors, pirates, traders and fishermen, and there were opportunities for colonization. This meant that society was contemporary overall, with many cities becoming independent states. Such cities were referred to as polls, and, in addition to having their own area, they became the government for local towns and villages.

While a lot of people lived in these cities, many also resided in more rural areas and commuted for work and trading. Because of their economical influences, the cities became political centers. When land away from the coastal cities was arable, families would spend a lot of time working there to develop crops.

Country History And Economic Development

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2600 B.C. Period of early Minoean civilization in Crete, beginning more than 1,400 years of cultural development.

9TH CENTURY B.C. The poet Homer writes The Odyssey and The Iliad, the Greek classical epic poems.

8TH CENTURY B.C. Trade relations begin between Athens, Sparta, and other city-states.

450s B.C. Under the rule of Pericles, the Golden Age of Athens begins. This period is marked by achievements in architecture, sculpture, and philosophy.

336 B.C.Alexander the Great assumes power and creates the largest empire in history.

86 B.C. Rome conquers Athens. Pax Romana period begins in 31 B.C.

1453. Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople and Greece falls to Ottomans and remains under Ottoman control for close to 400 years.

1821-32. Inspired by the Enlightenment movement in Europe, the Greek War of Independence begins which liberates modern-day Greece. Britain and France assist Greece’s efforts.

1863. New constitution establishes parliament. Prince William of Denmark named King George I of Greece.

1881. Ottomans relinquish control of Thessaly and part of Epirus to Greece following pressure from Great Powers at 1878 Congress of Berlin.

1909. Greek government is overthrown by a military coup. Eleutherios Venizelos named head of new government.

1930. World depression causes political and economic unrest in Greece.

1936-41. General Ioannis Metaxas heads dictatorship after Venizelos resigns in 1932.

1946-49. Civil war erupts between government and Democratic Army of Greece.

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